The XCity award, which offers a £500 prize, launched earlier this year to recognise a former student for "an outstanding contribution to journalism in terms of making a difference in the way news and features are written or presented".
Rogers completed City University's newspaper diploma in 1991, according to an announcement of the win online by alumni magazine XCity, and was the first nominee to be announced.
Speaking to Journalism.co.uk, he said it was "a real honour" to be named the winner.
"City gave me my first big break in journalism and things I learnt then I still use every day. It's also a fantastic recognition of the power of data journalism and it's role in the changing face of reporting."
This is not the first accolade for Rogers, whose work at the Guardian was also awarded a special commendation from the Royal Statistical Society for excellence in journalism last year.
"I wholeheartedly congratulate Simon in receiving this prize," said professor George Brock, head of journalism at City University and a member of the judging panel.
"We were thoroughly impressed by the diverse range of nominations, demonstrating the quality and high level of professionalism of alumni from City's journalism programmes.
"Choosing one winner was difficult, but Simon's contribution to the advancement of data journalism clearly places him at the forefront of his field and demonstrates the impact he is having on the future of journalism."
Following Rogers' win there will be a full interview with him appearing in the annual XCity magazine in April, which is produced by magazine journalism MA students from the university.