Credit: Screenshot from The Washington Post YouTube

From deep-fakes to misleading satire, manipulated video can take a variety of different forms, so journalists have to be vigilant with any footage they come across online.

To prepare journalists for the pitfalls of a digital world, The Washington Post provides a fact-checker's guide to manipulated video.

Some videos are 'maliciously transformed' to be deliberately misleading, as in the example of US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. Fact-checking by The Washington Post demonstrated how the doctored video was slowed by 75 per cent and the pitch raised to make Pelosi sound like she was slurring her words. It is a clear example of what journalists must be on the lookout for.

"These videos spread rapidly across social media and were viewed millions of times. These manipulated were a clear attempt to shape public perception and score political points," it reads.

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